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It has been claimed that several small additional fragments in Greek have been found at Qumran 7QEnoch: Of the Latin translation, only 1: The first passage occurs in Pseudo-Cyprian and Pseudo-Vigilius;  the second was discovered in by M.
James in an 8th-century manuscript in the British Museum and published in the same year. The publication by Milik  of the results of the paleographic dating of the Enochic fragments found in Qumran made a breakthrough.
Since the Book of Watchers shows evidence of multiple stages of composition, it is probable that this work was extant already in the 3rd century BC.
It was no longer possible to claim that the core of the Book of Enoch was composed in the wake of the Maccabean Revolt as a reaction to Hellenization.
Some scholars speak even of an "Enochic Judaism" from which the writers of Qumran scrolls were descended. Most Qumran fragments are relatively early, with none written from the last period of the Qumranic experience.
Thus, it is probable that the Qumran community gradually lost interest in the Book of Enoch. The relation between 1 Enoch and the Essenes was noted even before the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
The main peculiar aspects of the not-Qumranic units of 1 Enoch are the following:. Classical rabbinic literature is characterized by near silence concerning Enoch.
It seems plausible that Rabbinic polemics against Enochic texts and traditions might have led to the loss of these books to Rabbinic Judaism.
The Book of Enoch plays an important role in the history of Jewish mysticism: There is little doubt that 1 Enoch was influential in molding New Testament doctrines about the Messiah , the Son of Man , the messianic kingdom , demonology , the resurrection , and eschatology.
Charles  Ephraim Isaac,  and G. Nickelsburg  in their respective translations and commentaries. It is possible that the earlier sections of 1 Enoch had direct textual and content influence on many Biblical apocrypha , such as Jubilees , 2 Baruch , 2 Esdras , Apocalypse of Abraham and 2 Enoch , though even in these cases, the connection is typically more branches of a common trunk than direct development.
The Greek text was known to, and quoted, both positively and negatively, by many Church Fathers: Sir Walter Raleigh , in his History of the World written in while imprisoned in the Tower of London , makes the curious assertion that part of the Book of Enoch "which contained the course of the stars, their names and motions" had been discovered in Saba Sheba in the first century and was thus available to Origen and Tertullian.
He attributes this information to Origen,  though no such statement is found anywhere in extant versions of Origen. Hiob Ludolf , the great Ethiopic scholar of the 17th and 18th centuries, soon claimed it to be a forgery produced by Abba Bahaila Michael.
From this a German translation was made by Rink in Revised editions appeared in , , and In , Laurence also released the first Ethiopic text of 1 Enoch published in the West, under the title: Libri Enoch Prophetae Versio Aethiopica.
The text, divided into chapters, was soon considered unreliable as it was the transcription of a single Ethiopic manuscript.
Two other translations came out around the same time: However, both are considered to be poor—the translation most of all—and is discussed in Hoffmann.
The first critical edition, based on five manuscripts, appeared in as Liber Henoch, Aethiopice, ad quinque codicum fidem editus, cum variis lectionibus , by August Dillmann.
It was considered the standard edition of 1 Enoch until the work of Charles. His translation and commentary of the Ethiopic text already represented an important advancement, as it was based on ten additional manuscripts.
Charles published a new critical edition of the Ethiopic text, using 23 Ethiopic manuscripts and all available sources at his time. The English translation of the reconstructed text appeared in , and the same year in his collection of The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament.
The publication, in the early s, of the first Aramaic fragments of 1 Enoch among the Dead Sea Scrolls profoundly changed the study of the document, as it provided evidence of its antiquity and original text.
The official edition of all Enoch fragments appeared in , by Jozef Milik. The renewed interest in 1 Enoch spawned a number of other translations: In a new edition of the Ethiopic text was edited by Michael Knibb, with an English translation, while a new commentary appeared in by Matthew Black.
In George W. Nickelsburg published the first volume of a comprehensive commentary on 1 Enoch in the Hermeneia series. This first section of the Book of Enoch describes the fall of the Watchers , the angels who fathered the Nephilim cf.
This section is said to have been composed in the 4th or 3rd century BCE according to Western scholars. The introduction to the Book of Enoch tells us that Enoch is "a just man, whose eyes were opened by God so that he saw a vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the sons of God showed to me, and from them I heard everything, and I knew what I saw, but [these things that I saw will] not [come to pass] for this generation, but for a generation that has yet to come.
It also tells us about the luminaries rising and setting in the order and in their own time and never change: How all things are ordained by God and take place in his own time.
The sinners shall perish and the great and the good shall live on in light, joy and peace. And all His works go on thus from year to year for ever, and all the tasks which they accomplish for Him, and their tasks change not, but according as God hath ordained so is it done.
And they were in all two hundred; who descended in the days of Jared on the summit of Mount Hermon , and they called it Mount Hermon, because they had sworn and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it.
And they became pregnant, and they bare great giants, whose height was three hundred ells: And when men could no longer sustain them, the giants turned against them and devoured mankind.
And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways.
Michael , Uriel , Raphael , and Gabriel appeal to God to judge the inhabitants of the world and the fallen angels. Uriel is then sent by God to tell Noah of the coming cataclysm and what he needs to do.
Go to Noah and tell him in my name "Hide thyself! And now instruct him that he may escape and his seed may be preserved for all the generations of the world.
And place upon him rough and jagged rocks, and cover him with darkness, and let him abide there for ever, and cover his face that he may not see light.
And on the day of the great judgement he shall be cast into the fire. And heal the earth which the angels have corrupted, and proclaim the healing of the earth, that they may heal the plague, and that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the Watchers have disclosed and have taught their sons.
And to Gabriel said the Lord: Some, [ citation needed ] including R. Charles, suggest that "biters" should read "bastards", but the name is so unusual that some [ citation needed ] believe that the implication that is made by the reading of "biters" is more or less correct.
And the Lord said unto Michael: And when their sons have slain one another, and they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them fast for seventy generations in the valleys of the earth, till the day of their judgement and of their consummation, till the judgement that is for ever and ever is consummated.
In those days they shall be led off to the abyss of fire: And whosoever shall be condemned and destroyed will from thenceforth be bound together with them to the end of all generations.
Chapters 37—71 of the Book of Enoch are referred to as the Book of Parables. The scholarly debate centers on these chapters.
The Book of Parables appears to be based on the Book of Watchers, but presents a later development of the idea of final judgement and of eschatology , concerned not only with the destiny of the fallen angels but also that of the evil kings of the earth.
It has been suggested that the Book of Parables, in its entirety, is a later addition. Pointing to similarities with the Sibylline Oracles and other earlier works, in , J.
Milik dated the Book of Parables to the third century. He believed that the events in the parables were linked to historic events dating from to CE.
Knibb would continue this line of reasoning in later works. In , Robert Charles judged Chapter 71 to be a later addition. He would later change his opinion : It occurs in the "Noachian interpolations" lx.
Though Charles does not admit it, these passages betray Christian redaction and emendation. These passages seem to interrupt the flow of the narrative.
Hannah suggests that these passages are not, in total, novel interpolations, but rather derived from an earlier Noah apocryphon. In addition to the theory of Noachian interpolations, which perhaps a majority of scholars support, most scholars currently believe that Chapters 70—71 are a later addition in part or in whole.
The Son of Man is identified with Enoch. The text implies that Enoch had previously been enthroned in heaven. The parable also switches from third person singular to first person singular.
Charlesworth rejects the theory that chapters 70—71 are later additions. He believes that no additions were made to the Book of Parables. Four fragmentary editions of the Astronomical Book were found at Qumran, 4Q This book contains descriptions of the movement of heavenly bodies and of the firmament , as a knowledge revealed to Enoch in his trips to Heaven guided by Uriel , and it describes a Solar calendar that was later described also in the Book of Jubilees which was used by the Dead Sea sect.
The use of this calendar made it impossible to celebrate the festivals simultaneously with the Temple of Jerusalem.
The year was composed from days, divided in four equal seasons of ninety-one days each. Each season was composed of three equal months of thirty days, plus an extra day at the end of the third month.
The whole year was thus composed of exactly fifty-two weeks, and every calendar day occurred always on the same day of the week.
Each year and each season started always on Wednesday , which was the fourth day of the creation narrated in Genesis , the day when the lights in the sky, the seasons, the days and the years were created.
The Book of Dream Visions, containing a vision of a history of Israel all the way down to what the majority have interpreted as the Maccabean Revolt , is dated by most to Maccabean times about — BC.
According to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church it was written before the Flood. The second dream vision in this section of the Book of Enoch is an allegorical account of the history of Israel, that uses animals to represent human beings and human beings to represent angels.
One of several hypothetical reconstructions of the meanings in the dream is as follows based on the works of R. There are a great many links between the first book and this one, including the outline of the story and the imprisonment of the leaders and destruction of the Nephilim.
The dream includes sections relating to the book of Watchers:. And those seventy shepherds were judged and found guilty, and they were cast into that fiery abyss.
And I saw at that time how a like abyss was opened in the midst of the earth, full of fire, and they brought those blinded sheep.
The fall of the evil ones. And all the oxen feared them and were affrighted at them, and began to bite with their teeth and to devour, and to gore with their horns.
And they began, moreover, to devour those oxen; and behold all the children of the earth began to tremble and quake before them and to flee from them.
The creation of the Nephilim et al. Similar references exist in Jubilees 7: The book describes their release from the Ark along with three bulls — white, red, and black, which are Shem, Ham, and Japeth — in It also covers the death of Noah, described as the white bull, and the creation of many nations:.
And they began to bring forth beasts of the field and birds, so that there arose different genera: It then describes the story of Moses and Aaron Eventually they arrived at a "pleasant and glorious land" And that sheep whose eyes were opened saw that ram, which was amongst the sheep, till it forsook its glory and began to butt those sheep, and trampled upon them, and behaved itself unseemly.
And the Lord of the sheep sent the lamb to another lamb and raised it to being a ram and leader of the sheep instead of that ram which had forsaken its glory.
David replacing Saul as leader of Israel. This interpretation is accepted by Dillmann p. It also describes the escape of Elijah the prophet; in 1 Kings This part of the book can be taken to be the kingdom splitting into the northern and southern tribes, that is, Israel and Judah, eventually leading to Israel falling to the Assyrians in BC and Judah falling to the Babylonians a little over a century later BC.
There is also mention of 59 of 70 shepherds with their own seasons; there seems to be some debate on the meaning of this section, some suggesting that it is a reference to the 70 appointed times in Another interpretation is the 70 weeks in Daniel 9: